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Third, the theory of interdependence (sometimes known as utilization) has been suggested.
In other words, one or more synoptic gospel used one or more synoptic gospel.
First, Schleiermacher in 1817 held that the apostles had written down brief memorabilia which were later collected and arranged according to their particular type of genre. The main problem with this theory is that it looks no different than an Ur-Mark which, in turn, looks no different than Mark.
The problem with this view is that it fails to explain the arrangement of the synoptic gospels. Thus, rather than postulating any kind of Ur-Gospel, a simpler theory which accounted for the data just as well was that Mark stood behind Luke and Matthew.
First, there is occasional disagreement in the order. .” In the least this implies two things: (1) Luke was aware of written (and oral) sources based on eyewitness accounts; (2) Luke used some of these sources in the composition of his gospel.
For example, many of Matthew’s parables in chapter 13 are found in Luke 8 or Luke 13. Stein has summarized ably what one should conclude from these four areas of investigation: We shall see later that before the Gospels were written there did exist a period in which the gospel materials were passed on orally, and it is clear that this oral tradition influenced not only the first of our synoptic Gospels but the subsequent ones as well.
Third, even if Jesus spoke in Greek exclusively, how is it that not only his words but his are recorded in verbal identity?
There is a material difference between remembering the verbiage of what one heard and recording what one saw in identical verbiage.
But the vast bulk of NT scholars today would argue for much more than that.
Second, if Jesus spoke and taught in Aramaic (at least sometimes, if not usually), then why are these verbal agreements preserved for us in Greek?
It is doubtful that each writer would have translated Jesus’ sayings in exactly the same way so often.
Any serious discussion of the Synoptic Gospels must, sooner or later, involve a discussion of the literary interrelationships among Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
This is essential in order to see how an author used his sources (both for reliability’s sake as well as for redactional criticism), as well as when he wrote. Stein’s It is quite impossible to hold that the three synoptic gospels were completely independent from each other.